Despite getting a little extra attention of late, the problem of ocean surcharges, fees, and GRIs is still overshadowed by the historically low ocean cargo rates in the industry right now. So while the current problems at Hanjin have further highlighted the issue and risks to shippers from low rates, it’s important not lose sight of the systemic challenges surcharges cause for shippers, forwarders, and carriers themselves.
Here’s two recent articles we’ve written on the topic.
Despite their importance, many shippers are not even aware of the surcharges they are paying. Instead, they trust the invoices are correct, or are simply too overwhelmed to do anything. To help, here’s a breakdown of the charges that appear on a typical ocean invoice, with the most common surcharges explained.
Base Rate: Shipping carriers establish their own rate of shipping, which varies among carriers and routes. The base rate is a calculation of the weight, size, and type of goods being shipped, as well as the distance. Carriers can adjust their base rates depending on their need for additional volume along certain routes.
Peak Season Surcharge: From the months of July to November, there is a sizeable increase in the transportation coming from the Far East (most of Asia) to the West. As a result, shipping companies often impose a Peak Season Surcharge on shipments from this region. Shipping companies can extend the period of the peak season if needed.
Carrier Security Charge: The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS) is a detailed set of measures to enhance the security of ships and port facilities. If a carrier maintains vessels which are compliant to this code, they will apply a charge back to the customer. The charge is applied per container, on all shipments.
Origin Terminal Handling Charge: The origin terminal handling charge is the fee collected by shipping lines to cover the handling costs for the containers which will be processed through the terminals. The shipping line, in turn, pays the terminal operator. These charges vary by country, as the cost of handling at each port differs. When the delivery or pickup of goods will be at a container terminal, all parties must determine who will pay for all or part of the terminal charges.
Origin Doc Fee: This charge appears on the Bill of Lading if the Shipping Instruction (SI) is not transmitted to the carrier via electronic data interchange or on the carrier’s online portal. It also applies if the Shipping Instruction has been submitted but the booking is cancelled after the deadline.
Advance Manifest Surcharge: Shipping companies must provide certain destination customs authorities with shipment information according to the carrier in advance. This cost is added to maintain compliance with the regulations. As more countries use these customs requirements, more shippers will incur this fee.
Chassis Charge: Since many ocean liners no longer provide chassis services for import and export containers, drayage companies must either own or rent the necessary transport equipment. The daily chassis rate varies by carrier, but are usually around $15-$25 per day. However, the longer a chassis is used on a container, the higher the daily charge will be.
Rate Restoration Initiative: As the ocean carrier industry has been adversely affected by economic downturns, rates fell on every major trade lane to the extent that every carrier was losing money. The rate restoration initiative is an increase in container freight rates so they reach a compensatory level. These increases vary by shipping line and destinations.
It will be a while, if ever, that ocean carriers stop adding surcharges. And unfortunately this top list is only a few out of the 1,200+ that carriers charge. Until the industry makes some significant changes, it’s more important than ever for shippers to look closely at their ocean freight invoices and understand exactly what they are paying for.